The state that is named after a mythical African ruler is California! It is named after African Goddess, “Queen Califia”. She is believed to have been the leader of a group of amazons. Check out the link below to learn more!
On September 18, 1895, Booker T. Washington delivered his famous “Atlanta Compromise” speech at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta. Though not without its critics, it is regarded as one of the most significant speeches in American history.
Washington’s speech responded to the “Negro problem”—of what should be done about the terrible socio-economic conditions under which blacks were living after emancipation; as well as the relationship between blacks and whites, particularly in the South. Washington promised his predominately white audience that he would encourage blacks to become skilled in areas such as agriculture, mechanics, commerce and domestic service. He further assured the crowd of the loyalty of the black race. Washington, seemed in the speech to take great pains to also assure the audience that blacks desire for social equality would not be forced artificially but would gradually occur over time. Washington also seemed intent to minimize the fears of whites regarding social integration. His speech seemed to imply that blacks and whites could maintain their separateness and still work together and have mutual progress.
Washington’s speech did encourage whites to take some responsibility in supporting the socio economic advancement of blacks. However, he made sure to praise the South for what he felt were opportunities they provided to blacks in the south since emancipation. Washington’s stressing a sort of shared responsibility resulted in his speech being called, “The Atlanta Compromise’. The speech was well received by those in attendance as well as other prominent African American leaders. However, some black leaders took great issue with the speech; feeling that Washington’s approach was too passive. One of Washington’s biggest critics was W.E.B Dubois.
Washington had his critics, none more vocal than another leading black educator and scholar of his day—W. E. B. Du Bois. Du Bois, “Mr. Washington represents in Negro thought the old attitude of adjustment and submission…. [His] programme practically accepts the alleged inferiority of the Negro races.” Dubois believed the problems of the Negro needed a different type of response. He believed blacks should be more aggressive in obtaining civil rights.The Atlanta Compromise speech was clearly Washington’s ‘answer’ for addressing the problems that blacks were now facing after emancipation. A position to which W.E.B. Dubois was staunchly opposed.
To read the speech in its entirety, click on the link below:
Dr.Jane Wright was an African American oncologist who, along with her father, Dr. Louis Wright conducted pioneering research into chemotherapy drugs, leading to their use as a key method of cancer treatment. Born in New York City on November 30 1919, she was the oldest of two children. Her mother was a schoolteacher. Her father, Dr. Louis Tompkins Wright, was one of the first African-Americans to graduate from Harvard Medical School, and the first black doctor to work in a municipal New York hospital.
Jane attended Smith College in Northampton, MA and then attended New York Medical College in 1942 where she graduated with honors. After completing her residency, Jane joined her father, Dr. Louis Wright, and began working at the Cancer Research Foundation that he founded at Harlem Hospital in 1949. They began testing new chemicals on patients with leukemia and lymphatic cancers. When her father died in 1952, Jane Wright became the foundation’s director. She was 33.
In 1964 Wright was appointed to the President’s Commission on Heart Disease, Cancer, and Stroke. The commission was responsible for establishing regional cancer centers across the country. That same year, she also co-founded the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). She returned to New York Medical College in 1967 as associate dean, professor of surgery, and head of the cancer research laboratory. She retired in 1987. She died on February, 19, 2013 at the age of 93.