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The Three-Fifths Compromise: What It Actually Meant

The graphic is entitled, "Three Fifths Compromise". It has a picture of the handwritten constitutional language of the 1787 U.S. Constitution.  To the right of the picture states, "The Three-Fifths Compromise was agreed upon by delegates during the 1787 U.S. Constitutional Convention. It decided that three out of every five enslaved persons would be counted to determine a state’s total population for legislative representation and taxation. Before the Civil War, this gave disproportionate representation to southern slave-holding states in the House of Representatives."  Below the text is the website address:

Delegates agreed upon the Three-Fifths Compromise during the 1787 U.S. Constitutional Convention. The Convention decided that three out of every five enslaved persons would be counted to determine a state’s total population for legislative representation and taxation before the Civil War. This gave disproportionate representation to southern slave-holding states in the House of Representatives.

The issue of how to calculate population totals was of significant concern. The United States was deeply divided on the abolishment of slavery, with some delegates from Northern states seeking to have representation determined based on the size of a state’s free population. Southern delegates demanded that enslaved individuals be counted as part of the population. The constitutional framers agreed upon a compromise resulting in representation in the House of Representatives being calculated based upon a state’s free population plus three-fifths of its enslaved population. This agreement was referred to as the Three-Fifths Compromise: 

“Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other Persons” (United States Constitutional Convention 1787)

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The Biloxi Wade-Ins

The Biloxi Wade-In civil rights protests were convened by local Black residents of Biloxi, Mississippi. Dr. Gilbert R. Mason, Sr., led the protests to desegregate Mississippi beaches along the Gulf Coast. It was the first major civil rights protest in Mississippi. The first wade-in took place on May 14, 1959, when Mason tried to swim at the beach with friends and their children.  A police officer ordered the group to leave due to violating segregation laws.  Mason and another protestor, Murry J. Saucier, Jr., went to the police station to determine if any laws had been broken.  They received no answer.  So they returned the following day, resulting in a meeting with the Mayor of Biloxi, Laz Quave.  Mayor Quave informed them they would be arrested if they returned to the beach. 

Several weeks later, in June 1959, Mason’s friend, Dr. Felix. Dunn penned a letter to the Harrison County Board of Supervisors asking, “What laws, if any, prohibit the use of the base facilities by Negro citizens?” The Board of Supervisors president responded, informing Dunn that, “the beach and water from the shoreline extending out of 1500 feet, meaning that black swimmers were trespassing if they came onto the beach. 

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Dennis Weatherby: Developer Of Cascade Dish Detergent Chemical Formula

At the topic of the graphic is the name, "Dennis Weatherby" an African American scientist. Below this is a picture of Dennis Weatherby with the text, "African-American scientist Dennis W. Weatherby created the chemical formula for Cascade detergent."

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African American scientist Dennis Weatherby is responsible for the Cascade dish detergent chemical formula. He was born in Brighton, Alabama, on December 4, 1959. Weatherby developed a love for science as a child. Following high school he attended Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio, on a football scholarship. He graduated with a bachelor of arts in chemistry in 1982.

Following graduation, Weatherby was employed by Proctor and Gamble as a process engineer. Within two years, he led a consumer products team focusing on developing a new detergent. Previous detergents stained both dishes and dishwashers. Weatherby and a co-developer Brian J. Roselle developed a dish solution with a lemon-yellow pigment that did not stain dishes. Weatherby patented the “automatic dishwasher detergent composition” formula on December 22, 1987. He was 27 years old. The formula is still used for all lemon-scented cleaning products containing bleach. 

Weatherby left Protocor and Gamble and was briefly employed by The Whittaker Corporation. He then returned to his alma mater, Central State Univesity, in 1989 as a faculty member, advisor, recruiter, and counselor. He then joined the faculty of Auburn University in 1996 to launch the school’s new minority engineering program. After leaving Auburn, he was employed by the Univesity of Notre Dame in 2004, serving as an associate dean in the graduate school. He then accepted a position at Northern Kentucky University in 2006 as Associate Provost. 

Weatherby experienced chronic high blood pressure throughout his life. In August 2007, he was recovering at home after a period of illness related when he hit his foot and developed a blood clot that traveled to his brain. Weatherby died on September 15, 2007. He was 47 years old, leaving behind a wife, four daughters, and two sons. 

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The Racial Wealth Gap

The graphic shows a pic on the left with a glass that is full across from a glass that only a quarter full.  Next to the pic is a statement:  Racial Wealth Gap:  Racial differences in household wealth between Black and White Americans represent historical and present-day inequities in the U.S. These inequities signal a negative impact on long-term economic security for Black Americans.

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The current racial wealth gap in the United States poses a significant threat to Black Americans and the United States economy as a whole. Wealth is critical for economic growth and mobility.  It provides the resources necessary to finance education, home purchases, investments, business startup, etc. The correlation between parents’ wealth and their children’s wealth is strong.  Parental wealth facilitates the intergenerational transfer of wealth to children. The intergenerational transfer of wealth makes up a significant part of total wealth.

Household wealth increases the likelihood that children will graduate from college, which increases employment earnings. Families without access to the generational benefits of wealth accumulation face harm from its absence.  Family wealth boosts the potential for further wealth. The benefits of wealth accumulation and economic security to health and psychological well-being.  Conversely, the impact of negative wealth can increase the likelihood of physical and mental health challenges and can also affect the ability to pay for high-quality healthcare. 84 percent of total wealth in the United States comes from White Americans, who make up only 60 percent of the population.  Black Americans represent four percent of the wealth and makeup 13 percent of the population. 

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Omega Psi Phi Fraternity: Instrumental In Launching First Negro History Week In 1924

Graphic contains the heading, "Omega Psi Phi Fraternity".. Underneath to the left is a photo of Carter G. Woodson on the left.  On the right is the following: "Carter G. Woodson known as the Father of Black History believed that young African Americans in the early 20th century were not being educated enough of their own heritage.  To get his message out, Woodson first turned to his fraternity, Omega Psi Phi, which created Negro History and Literature Week in 1924." Below is the website address:

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Passionate about spreading the knowledge of Black History, Carter G. Woodson launched Negro History Week, which we now celebrate as Black History Month. During the national meeting of Omega Psi Phi on December 27, 1920, Woodson gave a powerful speech encouraging his fraternity brothers to promote the study of Black History. Inspired by Woodson’s call to action, Omega Psi Phi devoted one week in April annually to studying Negro History and Literature, calling it “Negro Achievement Week” starting in 1924. Gamma Chapter in Boston made good on its commitment to creating and distributing literature throughout the city of Boston. Bolstered by the support of the Gamma Chapter, Woodson recognized the need for an even larger platform for recognizing and celebrating Black History. In subsequent years the Association for the Study of African American Life and History took over the promotion of Negro History Week, which eventually expanded to Black History Month. 

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Celebrating Valentine’s Day And Black History

Graphic title:  Celebrating Valentines Day and Black History. Below the title is a heat with a fist.  To the right of this pic it states:  Happy Valentine's Day! 
What a perfect day to declare our love for Black History by sharing some notable events that occurred on February 14th.  Check out the post to learn more.. At the bottom of the graphic is the website:

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1760—Birth of Richard Allen. Religious leader Richard Allen was born enslaved in Philadephia, Pennsylvania. Allen helped to found and served as the first Bishop of the African American Episcopal Church, one of the largest Black denominations in America, with over 1 million members globally. 

1817—Birthdate of Frederick Douglass. February 14th is believed to be the birthdate of abolitionist and orator Frederick Douglass. Douglas purchased his freedom in 1845. He is recognized as an influential African American leader.

1867—Morehouse College founded. The college was founded in Augusta, Georgia, as the Augusta Institute. The school moved to Atlanta in 1879, becoming the Atlanta Baptist Seminary. The name was changed to Morehouse in 1913. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr, is a graduate of Morehouse.

1936—The National Negro Congress organized. The congress was organized at a meeting in Chicago, Illinois, attended by more than 800 delegates representing nearly 500 Black organizations. A. Phillip Randolph was elected as its first president. One of the organization’s priorities was to generate support for the “New Deal” legislation of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. At this time, most Black voters were Republicans. The New Deal and the social programs proposed by Roosevelt catalyzed a massive shift of Black voters to the democratic party.   

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Matthew “Mack” Ingram:  Convicted Of “Reckless Eyeballing” In 1951

Graphic has the title, "Reckless Eyeballing" at the top.  Below the title is a picture of Matthew Ingram, the subject of the blog post.  To the right there is a statement, "In June 1951, Matt Ingram was arrested and accused of “reckless eyeballing” (improperly looking at a white person with sexual intent). 
Ingram would spend over two years in prison and endure three court trials before the supreme court vacated his conviction..  Below the statement is the web address: on the right and the website logo on the leftl

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In June 1951, Matt Ingram was arrested and accused of “reckless eyeballing” (improperly looking at a white person with sexual intent). He was one of the last Black Americans to be convicted under the Jim Crow law. Ingram was a Black sharecropper living in Yanceyville, North Carolina. He was married with nine children.   

The alleged crime occurred when Ingram went to his white neighbor to see if he could borrow his truck. The neighbor’s seventeen-year-old daughter Willa Jean Boswell was present along with other siblings. Ingram left the home when he recognized that their father was not home. Bosewell testified in court that Ingram frightened her when he looked at her from about seventy-five feet away. The accusations had the small North Carolina community in an uproar. Prosecutors demanded that Ingram be charged and convicted of assault with intent to rape. The charge was later reduced to an assault on a female by the judge. 

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The Negro Sanhedrin

Top of pic has the post title, "The Negro Sanhedrin"  to the left of the post is a pic of the founder of the Negro Sanhedrin Kelly Smith.  To the right is a description of the Negro Sanhedrin which is explained in the blog post.  At the bottom of the pic is the website:

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The Negro Sanhedrin was founded by Kelly Miller (1863-1939). The organization aimed to increase collaboration and unity among Black organizations in the United States. The “Sanhedrin” originally was a Jewish religious and legislative body of ancient Israel. It was comprised of leaders appointed to oversee each city of Israel. In Hebrew, the word means “sitting together, an assembly or council.” The term embodied what Miller envisioned, a national organization with a clear agenda and regional leadership in place across the United States. Miller’s singular focus on the condition of the Black community in the United States was different than that of other movements active at the time, including the Pan African Conference led by W.E.B. Du Bois, which focused on the global Black community. It also differed from the vision of Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association which focused on the emigration of  Black Americans back to Africa.

Miller felt that black organizations often duplicated efforts and lacked clarity in addressing the priorities of the black community with a unified voice. Miller, a lauded sociologist, served as dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Howard University. He was highly respected and able to draw representation from sixty-three Black organizations to meet in Chicago for 5 days in 1924. Organizations included the National Association For The Advancement of Colored People, the Equal Rights League, the Race Congress, the International Uplift League, and the Friends of Negro Freedom. Miller also invited individuals of influence unaffiliated with a Black organization. The event drew approximately 300 delegates.

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Willa Brown and Janet Harmon-Bragg:  Black Female Aviators Following In the Footsteps of Bessie Coleman

Pic of Willa Brown (top).  Brown is seated in the open cockpit of an airplane.  She has goggles on with a white aviator cap and is smiling.  Janet Harmon-Bragg (bottom) has on a dark colored aviator cap and is smiling.  To the right of the photos it says, "Willa Brown and Janet Harmon Bragg were aviation trailblazers who helped advance the entrance of Black Americans into the field of aviation. "

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Following in the footsteps of famed aviator Bessie Coleman, Willa Brown (1906-1992) and Janet Harmon-Bragg (1907-1993) were instrumental in advancing the entrance of African-Americans into the aviation field. Brown was the first black woman to receive a commercial pilot’s license in the U.S. Janet Harmon Bragg was the first Black woman to receive a pilot’s license in the United States. Willa Brown obtained her pilot’s license in 1938. Born in Kentucky, she graduated from high school in Terra Haute, Indiana. Brown then attended Indiana State Teachers College. She worked as a teacher in Indiana before taking a job in Chicago as a social worker. During this time, she developed an interest in flying, earning her pilot’s license that same year. Brown continued with her education, earning an MBA from Northwestern University. 

Brown used her passion and business acumen as co-founder of the Coffey School of Aeronautics. She launched the school with her husband, Cornelius Coffey, who was also a pilot. It was the first black-owned and operated private flight academy in the United States. The school received funding in 1939 to begin training pilots for the Civilian Pilot Training Program. Brown would become the first Black officer in the Civilian Air Patrol in 1941. She taught hundreds of people as an instructor, with many male students becoming part of the legendary Tuskegee Airmen. The Tuskegee Airmen was a primarily Black military aviation unit that served during World War II. Brown was also a staunch advocate for racial integration within the United States military. She for congress in 1946 and was the first Black woman to do so. She did not win the election. Brown died in 1992 in Chicago at the age of 86.

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