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emancipation

The National Ex-Slave Mutual Relief, Bounty, and Pension Association Of The United States

Black History:  Special Delivery!!

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Following the end of slavery in the U.S., many formerly enslaved people felt betrayed by the government because they received no financial or material assistance as they exited slavery.  The National Ex-Slave Mutual Relief, Bounty, and Pension of the United States was chartered in 1898 to advocate for the payment of pensions to the formerly enslaved.  The pensions were to serve as reparations for the economic robbery of slavery and, would also help with burial costs.  Formerly enslaved woman, Callie House became a nationally recognized leader of the organization.  The group claimed to have a membership in the hundreds of thousands who made financial donations to fund the organization. It unsuccessfully sued the government for access to money gained through a tax on cotton confiscated during the civil war. Continue reading “The National Ex-Slave Mutual Relief, Bounty, and Pension Association Of The United States”

David Walker: Abolitionist And Pioneer of Black Nationalism & Black Power

Black History:  Special Delivery!!

 

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David Walker

 

David Walker (1785-1830), was the son of an enslaved father and a free black mother. Because his mother was free, Walker was also considered a free citizen. His freedom, however, did not shield him from witnessing firsthand the injustices of slavery. On one occasion, Walker witnessed an enslaved boy who was forced to whip his mother until she died. This experience and others throughout his life rallied him to become an activist and an abolitionist. As an adult, Walker settled in Boston, MA. Though Boston was a free city in the North, discrimination was still very prevalent there. Walker opened a clothing store in Boston in the 1820’s. He also began to associate with other black activists and abolitionists and became a writer for the first African American Newspaper in the U.S. “Freedom’s Journal”. Walker was also involved with the Underground Railroad providing clothing to those trying to escape slavery.

His pamphlet, “Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World” was published in 1829. His target audience were those enslaved in the south. Continue reading “David Walker: Abolitionist And Pioneer of Black Nationalism & Black Power”

How African Americans Ended Up Supporting The Democratic Party

Black History: Special Delivery!!

dem repub

Dating back just one hundred years ago, the vast majority of African Americans were Republicans and not Democrats. The Republican Party was the “Party of Lincoln” the party that enacted the Emancipation Proclamation and supported Reconstruction.  Many blacks voted Republican following the Civil War through the first part of the 20th century.  Also at that time, most of the white politicians who supported segregation and governed the south were Democrats.  The Democratic Party did not officially open its doors to blacks until 1924 when they were allowed to attend the Democratic convention.  The majority of blacks at the time lived in the South, where they often prevented from even voting at all.  Starting slowly, but peaking in the 1960’s and going forward, blacks have shifted their loyalty to the Democratic Party.  The events of the civil rights movement were a catalyst for blacks to leave the Republican Party in droves.

Prior to the 1960’s, one of the initial shifts of blacks to the Democratic Party occurred during the Great Depression which lasted from 1929-1939. The Roosevelt presidential administration and its policies to bring jobs and assistance to the nations impoverished citizens made the Democratic Party very attractive to black who were experiencing the crushing blow of poverty.  Despite these gains, many blacks continued to stay affiliated with the Republican Party.  Not until Harry Truman received 77% of the black vote in 1948 did many blacks report they thought of themselves as Democrats.  This could be, due in part, to Truman issuing orders to desegregate the military.  He also issued an executive order to address racial bias in federal employment.  As late as 1960 approximately 2/3 of African Americans were affiliated with the Democratic Party.  Today the number is close to 90%.  Another major factor which contributed to the mass exodus from the Republic Party by blacks was the political agenda of US Senator and presidential candidate Barry Goldwater. Goldwater was a 1964 Republican presidential nominee.  He was a 5 term US Senator from Arizona at the time of his nomination for president by the Republican Party against Lyndon Johnson.  Continue reading “How African Americans Ended Up Supporting The Democratic Party”

Cleveland Home For Aged Colored People

Black History: Special Delivery!!

 eliza bryant

 

Born in 1827, Eliza Bryant was a black abolitionist and businesswoman. She grew up on a plantation in Wayne County North Carolina. Her mother Polly Simmons was enslaved, and her father was the plantation master. She moved north with her mother in 1848 when her mother was freed. They purchased a home in Cleveland, OH with money given to the family from their former master. Bryant was very active in the Cleveland community in supporting blacks who had newly relocated from the south after emancipation as part of the great migration.

In serving the community, she saw first-hand the needs of elderly blacks who were left alone due to slavery. At that time, there were no nursing homes that accepted blacks. In 1893 Bryant and two other women, Sarah Green and Lethia Flemming started making plans to establish a convalescent home for elderly blacks.
Continue reading “Cleveland Home For Aged Colored People”

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