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Red Summer Race Riots of 1919

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red-summer-riots

James Weldon Johnson, was the first to call the race riots that occurred during the summer of 1919, “Red Summer”.  During this time, race riots broke out across the country due to the growing animosity and tension between blacks and whites.  Riots broke out in Arkansas, Texas, South Carolina, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Washington, DC, Illinois, and Nebraska.  One of the most violent of these riots occurred in Chicago, IL.  Riots occurred in over three dozen cities.  The riot was started when a black teen, floated onto a white beach.  The teen was violently attacked.  From there, the beatings spilled over into white neighborhoods; with blacks passing through these neighborhoods being attacked.  Chicago police did not intervene to stop the attacks.  Blacks then responded by attacking whites that entered their neighborhoods.  It would eventually take a rain storm and the Illinois National Guard to regain order after 5 days.  It would be in Chicago, Washington, DC and Elaine, AK that the largest number of deaths occurred. Continue reading “Red Summer Race Riots of 1919”

Lift Every Voice and Sing: The Black National Anthem

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james weldon johnson
James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938) wrote “Lift Every Voice and Sing” in 1900 as a poem. It was later set to music by his brother Rosamond Johnson.

In 1900, “Lift Every Voice And Sing”, was written by James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938), a high school principal in Jacksonville, FL. Johnson was an educator, lawyer, diplomat, writer, and civil rights activist. He was a major contributor to the Harlem Renaissance. Johnson attended Atlanta University. Upon graduation, he was the first African American to pass the Florida Bar Exam. Johnson eventually became a grammar school principal.
Continue reading “Lift Every Voice and Sing: The Black National Anthem”

10 Things You Probably Didn’t Know About Rosa Parks!

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Rosa Parks

 

In honor of Rosa Parks birthday, I’m reposting, 10 THINGS YOU PROBABLY DIDNT KNOW ABOUT ROSA PARKS.  She was truly a phenomenal woman!  Many focus on her actions that launched the Montgomery Bus Boycott.  But she was an activist long before that!  She traveled the south on behalf of the NAACP investigating sexual assaults of black women.

Click the link to learn more!

 

Source: 10 Things You Probably Didn’t Know About Rosa Parks!

Paul R. Williams: African American Architect To The Stars

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paul r williams
Paul R. Williams

Paul R. Williams (1894-1980) was a renowned architect during a period in history where African American architects were rare. Williams was orphaned at 4 when his parents died.   His new foster family recognized his artistic talents and encouraged him to utilize them. His career spanned 50 years and 3,000 projects.

Williams opened his own architectural firm at the age of 28. He mastered the skill of rendering his architectural drawings upside down. He developed this skill so that his white clients (who might have been uncomfortable sitting next to him because he was black) could see his drawings right side up as they sat across the table from him.  Known as an architect to the stars, Williams designed homes for celebrities such as  Frank Sinatra, Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz, Lou Chaney, Barbara Stanwyck, and Charles Correll.

In 1953 he received the prestigious Springarn Medal from the NAACP for his outstanding contributions as an architect and member of the African American Community.  Williams in reflecting on his life noted the irony that most of the homes he designed and constructed were on property whose deeds included segregation covenants that prohibited blacks from purchasing the property.

 

Jacqueline Berrien, Former EEOC Chair, Dies at 53

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Jacqueline Berrien
Jacqueline Berrien

Former EEOC Chair – Jacqueline Berrien dead at 53.  Berrien died of cancer.  President Obama shared, “she has spent her entire career fighting to give voice to under represented communities and protect our most basic rights.”  A focus of her tenure as EEOC Chair was combating workplace discrimination.  During her term as Chair, the EEOC won the largest award under the American With Disabilities Act (ADA) $240 million for intellectually disabled men in EEOC VS. Hill Country Farms. The payout was later reduced to $1.6 million due to statutory caps.

She was also instrumental in the passage of regulations concerning the Genetic Non Discrimination Act of 2008.  A leader by example, during federal sequestration, when staff were furloughed without pay, Berrien donated her pay to a federal employee assistance fund. Prior to joining the EEOC, she worked for the NAACP Legal Defense Fund.   Click the link below to read more about this phenomenal woman!

https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/jacqueline-berrien-former-eeoc-chairwoman-dies-at-53/2015/11/12/1ecc41da-8956-11e5-9a07-453018f9a0ec_story.html

Black Mail Trivia: Which Alabama NAACP Staffer Investigated Sexual Assault Committed Against Black Women?

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Trivia

Black Mail Trivia Question:

Since the inception of slavery, through the Jim Crow era and beyond, Black women have been targets of sexual violence which they often suffered with in silence with no hope of justice or protection.  As the Civil Rights Movement began to emerge, the sexual violence of black women received more attention and advocacy.

Which NAACP staffer investigated and rallied the black community of Alabama in opposition to sexual assault committed against black women?

A)Thurgood Marshall

B)Rosa Parks

C)Roy Wilkins

D)Ella Baker

E)E.D. Nixon

Answer will be posted at 6pm EST.

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Did you miss yesterday’s post?  Click here to learn about Dr. Patricia Bath and her invention of a medical device to remove cataracts (a leading cause of blindness among African Americans).

Lynching Postcards: Death and Torture Captured on Film and Sold For Profit

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lynching 2

Note: This blog post may contain images that may be disturbing. At the very end of the blog post a picture depicting a lynching is displayed.

Many of us, (unfortunately) are likely familiar with the history of lynching of blacks in America. However, some may not realize that these heinous acts were often photographed, and, the photos widely sold and circulated in the form of postcards. At the time, many did not see the postcards as depictions of a terrible crimes, but rather, as the commemoration of an act of justice. Lynching laws had made these acts of murder “permissible”. The term lynching did not always mean “hanging”; but, this method became a very common way to murder blacks and maintain white supremacy. Between 1882 and 1968, 4,738 lynchings were reported by newspaper outlets.

A lynching was viewed as being a “community/social” event. It was not unusual for a lynching to draw hundreds of people including small children. It would also normally attract photographers as well. These photographers would produce photo postcards of a lynching and sell them as souvenirs. In 1912, Congress officially passed a law to prohibit postcards depicting lynching from being mailed. But it would not pass a law to prevent lynching. It would not be until 1946 that someone would be convicted for lynching.

Below is a picture of a postcard of a lynching sent by the Klu Klux Klan to Rev. John Haynes Holmes, one the founding members of the NAACP. It was sent to intimidate him. The postcard message, indicates that Holmes would be “added” to the mailing list and that he could expect to receive a post card “about once a month”. W.E.B. DuBois published the postcard in the NAACP magazine, “The Crisis” in 1912 along with the photographs of many other lynchings. “The Crisis” was very outspoken in advocating against lynching and wanted to publicize it to advocate for it being stopped.

Postcard of lynching sent to Rev. John Haynes Holmes
Postcard of lynching sent to Rev. John Haynes Holmes

It is sad and sickening to think about the thousands of men and women who lost their lives as victims of lynchings.

“The Brownies”: The First African American Children’s Magazine

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Image:  Library of Congress
Image: Library of Congress

The Brownies Book is recognized as the first magazine published for African American children and youth. Its first issue was published in January 1920 and it would eventually be hailed as an important event in establishing black children’s literature. W.E.B Du Bois, Jessie Redmon Fauset, and Augustus Granville Dill were the three creators of, “The Brownies Book”. It began under the umbrella of The NAACP’s national publication, “The Crisis”.

Each year, “The Crisis” published a children’s edition called the “Children’s Number”. It included stories, photos, poetry, and educational achievements of black children. The issue also contained more serious content, such as lynching and discrimination against blacks. The target audience was children between the ages of 6-16 years old. Its creators Dill and Du Bois established Du Bois and Dill Publishers in New York to publish The Brownies. One of the primary goals of the magazine was to dispel negative stereotypes about Africa and its people. At the time, it was a common occurrence to use children’s literature as a medium for spreading negative messages and images about blacks. Du Bois felt strongly that children should be educated on and take pride in their racial identity. The name of the magazine came from fables and folklore where stories were told of creatures called “brownies” who did household chores at night in exchange for food. It played on the stereotype of blacks being servants and slaves. However, the goal was not to reinforce the negative stereotype but rather to empower children to take pride in and embrace their racial identity. Another goal for the publication was to expand the availability of black children’s literature and increase youth participation in the NAACP.

The seven goals stated in “The True Brownies” were

  • To make colored children realize that being “colored” is a normal, beautiful thing.
  • To make them familiar with the history and achievements of the Negro race.
  • To make them know that other colored children have grown into beautiful, useful and famous persons.
  • To teach them a delicate code of honor and action in their relations with white children.
  • To turn their little hurts and resentments into emulation, ambition and love of their homes and companions.
  • To point out the best amusements and joys and worth-while things of life.
  • To inspire them to prepare for definite occupations and duties with a broad spirit of sacrifice.

It was a publication of very high quality and its cover pages were designed by prominent black artists. Each issue cost 15 cents, with a yearly subscription costing $1.50. The content of the magazine highlighted Du Bois’ opposition to Booker T. Washington and Washington’s belief that blacks should be more passive in working towards racial equality. It was long known that Du Bois did not agree with the philosophy of Booker T. Washington in achieving racial equity. A little know fact, is that in 1921, The Brownies became the first publication to print the poetry and literary work of Langston Hughes. Due to financial trouble, The Brownies ceased publication in 1921.

The Library of Congress’ Rare Book and Special Collections Division provides to all but the last issue of the Brownies’ Book. Click here to see copies of The Brownies.

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=rbc3&fileName=rbc0001_2004ser01351page.db

Before Emmett Till There Was Willie James Howard

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Letter from NAACP field secretary, Harry Moore to NAACP general counsel, Thurgood Marshall
Letter from NAACP field secretary, Harry Moore to NAACP general counsel, Thurgood Marshall

 

Willie James Howard’s flirtatious card sent to a white girl in 1944 would result in him losing his life 11 years before Emmett Till also met the same fate.

Emmett Till’s tragic story was captured by Jet Magazine when his mother decided to have an open casket at his funeral. In 1944 when Willie James Howard was murdered, there was no Jet Magazine. Willie had a crush on a young white girl that he worked with at a dime store. He sent her a Christmas card with the following words, “ I love your name. I love your voice. For a S.H. [sweetheart] you are my choice,”

The young girl, Cynthia Goff showed the note to her father, Phil Goff, a former state legislator. Phil Goff dragged Willie from his home at gun point on January 2, 1944. He and his father James Howard were taken to the Suwannee River where Willie was forced to jump in as his father watched the lynching. His body was pulled from the river the next day. Justice was sought for the cruel murder. Harry Moore, field secretary for the NAACP took statements from Willies parents. Moore had grown up in the town and was a classmate of Willie’s mother, Lula Howard. Thurgood Marshall, general counsel for the NAACP was told by Florida’s governor that it would be almost impossible to get a grand jury to believe the account of Willie’s father over the white men who murdered his son. The governor was right. A grand jury refused to indict Phil Goff and his accomplices. The Justice Department also refused to intervene; stating that it had no jurisdiction. Harry Moore continued to seek justice on behalf of the Howard Family until he and his wife were murdered by Klansmen who fire bombed their home in 1951.

The men who murdered Willie were never brought to justice. They are all dead now. Efforts to reopen the case thus far have been unsuccessful. Reflecting on how Emmett Till was beaten, shot, and thrown in the Tallahatchie River for whistling at a white woman; makes it even more troubling to know that another young man met the same fate years earlier.

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