In an interview with Fox News today, Trump Chief Of Staff, John Kelly says a “LACK OF ABILITY TO COMPROMISE led to the CIVIL WAR”.
COMPROMISE? Can you really come to a compromise when it comes to the enslavement, oppression, rape, murder, and economic disenfranchisement of an entire race of people perpetuated and perpetrated out of greed for hundreds of years?
Osborne P. Anderson (1830-1872) was one of the five African American men who accompanied John Brown in his raid of Harper’s Ferry in 1859. Seventeen men in total accompanied John Brown. Anderson was a free born abolitionist from Pennsylvania. He attended Oberlin College in Ohio. After college he moved to Chatham Canada. There he worked as a printer for the Provincial Freeman Newspaper. The paper was started by Mary Ann Shadd. She was the first African American female newspaper editor in North America. The paper was an antislavery and temperance publication.
Anderson met John Brown in 1858. In 1859, Brown, determined to bring an end to slavery, launched a plan to attack the U.S. military arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia). The raid was was part of a larger plot by Brown to establish an independent group fortification of freed slaves in the mountains of Virginia and Maryland that would fight to end slavery. Brown was apprehended during the raid. Brown and his men were overtaken and captured by U.S. Marines. Anderson and five other men escaped without capture. Brown was eventually convicted of treason and executed. The raid skyrocketed tensions between whites and enslaved blacks before the Civil War.
With the assistance of Mary Ann Shadd, Anderson published, A Voice From Harper’s Ferry in 1861, detailing his experience. This was the only published work regarding the raid on Harper’s Ferry authored by one someone who joined Brown in the raid.
Anderson joined the Union Army in 1864. He served as a recruitment officer in Indiana and Arkansas. He died in 1872 at the age of 42 in Washington DC from tuberculosis.
Dr. Edwin B. Henderson is credited with being the FATHER OF BLACK BASKETBALL. Henderson learned the game while attending Harvard University in 1904. He then returned to his home in Washington DC and taught it to black athletes in the segregated school system. Henderson set up several leagues for black players to compete in the sport. Due to segregation they were not allowed to play white teams. Henderson was also the first academic researcher of African American athletes. He published many writings in this area. Henderson and his wife Mary fought for equality within their communities. He was instrumental in starting an NAACP branch in Fairfax, VA. He also fought to end desegregation of sporting facilities.
James Reese Europe (1881 – 1919) was born in Mobile Alabama. Europe’s father was previously enslaved. His parents were both musicians; with his mother reading music and his father only playing by ear. The family relocated to Washington DC in 1889 where his father worked for the post office. At the age of 14, he entered a music writing competition and won second place. At the age of 22, Europe made New York City, his new home. He also composed music for the group, “Memphis Students” while there. During his time with the Memphis Students, but without his knowledge, Europe influenced George Gershwin. Gershwin recalled sitting outside of the club in Harlem as a seven year old boy listening to James Europe play.
In 1910, Europe co-founded “The Clef Club”. The Clef Club was in part, a fraternal organization for African American musicians. It also served as talent agency and trade union for African American musicians. The Clef Club purchased a building on W. 53rd Street in New York City. The location served as both a club and a booking office. James Europe was its first elected president and symphony orchestra conductor. In 1912, The Clef Club Orchestra performed at Carnegie Hall to rave reviews. This performance was also hailed as having a positive influence on race relations. It was the first African American jazz band to play at Carnegie Hall. The orchestra featured approximately 125-150 musicians playing for a diverse crowd of black and white patrons. The orchestra’s performances at Carnegie Hall gave them wide acclaim with white society and opened up opportunities for them to perform at other elite functions in New York, London, and Paris. The Clef Club not only supported musicians but other entertainers as well; thereby helping to improve working conditions for many of them. It was common at that time, that musicians would often be hired as waiters and bartenders who, might also provide musical entertainment. When a musical entertainer, or group was hired through The Clef Club, they were hired solely as entertainers and were paid a salary, transportation expenses, and lodging.
Black History: Special Delivery!! Legendary singer and piano player Fats Domino died on Tuesday 10/24/17 at the age of 89. Born, Antoine Domino, in 1928 in New Orleans, LA he is perhaps best known for his remake of, “Blueberry Hill”. His iconic sound as a piano player coupled with his signature vocals influenced musical greats such as Elvis Presley and The Beatles. Domino was one of the first artists inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall Of Fame in 1986. Domino was found dead at a private residence in New Orleans.
Robert Guillaume (1924-2017) died on 10/24/17 at the age of 89 at his home in Los Angeles.
He was born Robert Williams but changed his last name because he thought it gave him more distinction. Guillaume had a troubled start in life. It is reported that his mother disliked him because of his dark skin. From St. Louis, MO, the family was poor. He didn’t know his father. His mother was a prostitute. He would go on to find fame and fortune in TV and theater. He was the first African American to play the lead role in Phantom Of The Opera. He was also played a lead role in the first all black cast of Guys and Dolls for which he won an Emmy in 1977. Guillaume played the role of Frederick Douglass in the 1985 mini series, North and South as well as the voice of Rafiki in Lion King in 1994 as well.
Coffee originated in Ethiopia! It was first discovered around the 10th or 11th century. It represents 60% of Ethiopia’s export revenue. Second only to oil, coffee is the most valuable legally traded commodity in the world.
Many coffee farmers in Ethiopia have struggled financially with bulk of profits going to middle men and distributors. Many coffee farmers have abandoned the cultivation of coffee in favor of more lucrative crops. Climate change is also taking its toll.
Still, Ethiopia continues to be a larger exporter of coffee. Its various types of coffees are sought after all over the world.
In 1868, the College Museum was founded at Hampton Institute (now Hampton University) by Samuel Chapman Armstrong (1839 – 1892). It is the oldest African American Museum in the U.S. Now known as the Hampton University Museum, it is still in operation on Hampton’s campus.
Armstrong was a white Union army general who commanded U.S. Colored Troops. Armstrong believed that education and training were essential to newly freed slaves. Armstrong worked worked with the Freedman’s Bureau and founded Hampton Normal Institute in 1868. One of his most famous pupils was Booker T. Washington. Washington greatly admired Armstrong and his approach to education. It was upon Armstrong’s recommendation that he was appointed to lead Tuskegee Institute. Washington patterned much of Tuskegee’s educational programming after Hampton Institute.
For more information on the museum, check out their website: